Producing and Sharing Video Presentations
Rapid changes in digital recording and Internet technology has allowed for utilization of digital recording technology and delivery of this via the Web (McClure, 2008). These technologies range from very simple desktop audio-video recording solutions to highly sophisticated capture stations with multiple cameras and dedicated computers. The majority of these solutions are sophisticated applications intended for large‐scale recording and distribution. Wilson (2010) argued that “even when a basic level of sophistication has been decided on, there are many offerings with very similar feature sets that make choosing one somewhat difficult” (p.1). Therefore, instructors will not able to use any of these technologies into their regular classes. The review also revealed many important principles, guidelines and features for consideration in selecting or designing video presentation recording tools.
A first finding from this body of research is that overcoming the limits of learner working memory (cognitive load theory) requires presenting part of the information being taught in a visual mode and part of it in a verbal mode (Homer, Plass, & Blake, 2008; Mayer, 2001). Presenting lesson information in both visual and verbal formats helps learners to construct their own knowledge and retrieve information more easily. According to Mayer and Anderson (Mayer & Anderson, 1991), video can enable improved communication of learning material can aid the retention of verbal information. Mayer (2001) provided a practical set of research-based principles that can help reduce cognitive load in PowerPoint-based video materials. For example, he argued that learners understand a multimedia explanation better when the words are presented as narration rather than on-screen text (the Modality Principle).
A second finding emphasized the concept of video presence and personalized narration within multimedia environments. Research indicated that although displaying the video of the instructor along with the slides creates a visual distraction, taking audience’s attention away from the visual information in the slides, presence of the instructor view is important to give the learner a sense of interaction with the instructor (sense of social presence) while watching the video lesson and may improve understanding, even though it adds to cognitive load (Homer, Plass, & Blake, 2008; Mayer & Moreno, 1998). Gunawardena (1995) found that social presence is necessary to support participants in technology-based learning environments.
A third finding highlighted many issues related to the technical design and usability of presentation recording solutions. Zhu and Bergom (2010) indicated that the skill level required to record presentation and make it available should be fairly minimal without the need of significant support services. In addition, the solution should make videos available for submission without further manipulation or editing before they are available for viewing (Wilson, 2010). Copley (2007) and Dey, Burn, & Gerdes (2009) emphasized that the system must capture and combine audio, video (via digital camera or webcam), and slides simultaneously into a single video frame to preserve the entire presentation experience.